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Global Warming

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The aim of this paper is to review the main arguments, ideas and information from two peer-reviewed journal articles published after 2008 as well as to indicate the similarities between the two arguments. For the purpose of this assignment, the writer used two articles: "The Dilemma of Global Warming" by Shohei and "Global Warming, Irreversibility, and Uncertainty: A Political Analysis" by Urpelainen.

According to the research carried out by Urpelainen (2011), the results obtained by the study outlined the factors fuelling global warming. The first factor they identified was greenhouse gas emission that warms the globe by adding up to the already existing greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and surface. Additionally, activities resulting to the thinning of the ozone layer contribute to global warming by increasing the quantity of radiation entering the surface of the Earth as well as the atmosphere. In some circumstances, radiation also leads to cooling of the planet and does not necessarily lead to warming of the planet. Another predominant factor causing and contributing to global warming is volcanic activity (Casper 129). Such activity leads to the cooling of the Earth over a short period of time by introducing sulphate aerosols into the surface of the planet that inhibit the sunrays to reach the surface of the Earth. Thus, consequently, volcanic activity leads to the lessening of sun radiation that reaches the surface of the planet. The only advantage resulting from volcanic activity is the fact that, in a sharp contrast to the greenhouse gases coming from human activity, aerosols resulting from volcanic activity can be eradicated from the surface of the planet much faster, usually taking an average of just two years. Considering the reversible effects resulting from volcanic activity, the key effect on long-standing changes in the temperature of the planet only takes place as a result of the extension of the duration within which high volcanic activity takes place.

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According to the authors of both articles, the other leading cause of global warming is aerosol emissions resulting from human activities. They argue that small emissions of aerosols can lead to the cooling of the global temperature. In comparison to emissions resulting from other causes of global warming, such as volcanic activity, human activities, such as utilizing fossil fuels along with bio matter, continually lead to emission of enormous quantities of aerosols into the surface of the planet. This long-term accumulation of human aerosol emissions has the potential of leading to changes in temperatures of the planet, and these changes may become permanent if humans continue to burn fossil fuels. Considering that human aerosol emissions have diverse impacts on the environment, such as causing the blocking of sunrays and increasing the effect resulting from greenhouse gas emissions, it has not been established with certainty whether the activities can also cause a cooling effect on the planet (Haldar 87).

According to Urpelainen (2011), the other leading cause of global warming results from the El Nino Southern Oscillation – a cycle occurring over the ocean that interchanges between El Nino along with La Nina levels. The occurrence of El Nino normally leads to the transference of heat from the ocean to the atmosphere, hence resulting to the warming of the atmosphere. La Nina, on the contrary, does the exact opposite to the temperatures of the planet. Even though the effects of both El Nino and La Nina have diverse implications on the planet, they do not pose any real threats since their effects cancel out one another.

The second study concerning the effects of global warming was conducted by Shohei (2008), who assumed a statistical strategy in analyzing the main causes of global warming in the world. To enable him to arrive at conclusive results, the author applied the use of linear regression analysis to carry out the study. To facilitate the research and ensure validity, the researcher used previous recordings of measurements of solar activities, emissions resulting from volcanic activities, human activities, along with the El Nino Southern Oscillation and compared the figures to the observational temperature statistics in a bid to attain the best fit. Assessing the remains resulting from adding up the diverse factors indicated whether the most important contributions were being regarded.
Shohei carried out the research at different timeframes and discovered that between 1889 and 2006, the highest contribution to the global warming was caused by human activities. Humans accounted for approximately 80 percent of global warming, followed by other natural occurrences at about 12 percent. The figures did not sum up to make 100 percent certainty because of imperfection in statistical fitness. Additionally, the researcher did not take into account all the causes of global warming. The study concluded that activities conducted by human beings contributed the highest to the problem of global warming.

Both writings are aimed at piquing the interest of all those who have an interest in the consequences of global warming. Such groups include the local and national governments, organizations concerned with the preservation of the environment such as non-governmental organizations, multinational corporations whose global activities can suffer from adverse changes in the temperatures and climate of the Earth, professional organizations, workers unions as well as well-recognized individuals. The authors of the articles have used an academic writing style implying the seriousness of the topic of global warming. The authors have assumed a serious tone when highlighting the causes of global warming implying that the results could be disastrous if not resolved.
The readings are similar in the sense that they both evaluate the leading causes of global warming. The first research enumerated the causes and the main factors and outcomes that come with every factor. The second reading additionally identified the causes and establishes that the single most contributory factor to global warming was human activities.

This paper has reviewed two articles relating to global warming and the major causes contributing to the trend. The writer finds the article "The Dilemma of Global Warming" by Shohei to be the most compelling. The author has used scientific methods to research the leading causes of global warming by analyzing observational data spanning approximately two centuries. The author came to the conclusion that human activities account for more than 80 percent of global warming. This information is compelling in the sense that human beings stand to be severely affected by global warming, yet they are the same entity that contributes the most to the cause. The use of statistical figures make the argument by Shohei more convincing and presents the facts as they are instead of just enumerating the leading causes of global warming without indicating the leading causes. Using the said article in the Seminar Paper would be beneficial since it provides accurate data and appears to be a credible source, while the second article lacks detail and cogency.

In conclusion, the leading causes of global warming have been identified to be solar activity, volcanic activity, human aerosol emissions, and the El Niño Southern Oscillation according to Urpelainen (2011). Additionally, the study by Shohei established that the leading causes of global warming are human activities that result to approximately 80 percent of global warming.

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