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Nervous System Sample Essay

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A 24 year old male received a distress call via the number 000 at 07.30 from a friend who wanted to pick him to work; a quick response culminated in the revelation of a male victim lying on the floor of his apartment in the living room. The victim had his arms curled towards his chest, his head protruding back, he also has backache and his eyes were rolled back with a fixed gaze. His mouth is seen to be wide open while his fiscal muscles appear pulled back tight. This analysis reveals that the patient might be showing symptoms of epilepsy and stroke. This is the first perception, putting forth the requirement of diagnostic measures (Briar, 2003). The victim having prior plans to get to work should have encountered an unexpected seizure, which led to muscles contraction. Moreover, the inability to affect motor activity could have been probable symptoms of stroke, which resulted in the unexpected body posture on the floor. This prompted a diagnostic test in order to prescribe the most convenient curative action for the control of the situation; in real essence, this scene was the factor underpinning research and documentation of evidence of different diseases to help understand the disorder that the patient was suffering from (Mihailoff, 2005).

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This essay depicts a paramedic case and pathophysiology of both diseases stroke and epilepsy, being brain dysfunctions and the current modes of management therein. It clearly elucidates the review of a clinical condition as the evidence based on this diagnosis.

Firstly, epilepsy, being the subject matter for the tribulations of the victim, is a disease marked by either generalised or focal seizures, where the generalised seizures result from alterations in the electric impulses of the head. These alterations happen at a very fast rate that the patient is not presumed to any form of warning. There are different characteristics that depict the generalised form of seizure, which may include the grand-mal seizure and the petit-mal seizure (Vogel, 2009). The grand-mal seizure has two phases depicted by unconsciousness and muscles stiffening, which forms the first phase, or the tonic phase. The other phase is the clonic or the second phase, characterised by contraction of muscles like the bladder muscles resulting in infrequent urination of the victim, with a consequent jerking of the entire fragments of the body.

On the other hand, the petit-mal seizure is the stage when a patient looses touch with self-recognition, depicted by gazes and ominous staring. This characteristic is closely related to the loss of absence, where the patient loses touch with reality. This may last for a short period of time, with a range of half an hour, while it might be persistent to some patients, especially those with prior diagnosis of high blood pressure (Vogel, 2009).

Furthermore, the focal seizure is the abnormality in the electrical impulses, which is initiated by a central focal point in the brain. This implies that this type of seizure has a specific part of the brain that alters transmission of electric impulses to the brain. It is marked either the simple or the complex type. The simple type of seizure is depicted through consciousness, but with inability to control normal body functions like movement and communication. On the other hand, the complex type of seizure causes convulsions and results in the patient's unawareness of the paramedic deliberations. For instance, the patient might appear to be dreaming, when he/she make abnormal movements like fidgeting with the hands and staring at one point (Porth, 2010). The patient might appear like a statue. In addition to this, there is also the secondary generalised seizure, which has a focal point just like the focal seizure. This form of seizure results in abnormality in electrical impulses, which spread to the whole body resulting in convulsions as the major diagnostic evidence (Vogel, 2009).

Secondly, stroke is a brain attack that might have led to the case synopsis of the situation. This brain dysfunction results from impairment of blood flow through the vessels to the brain. This might be due to blockage of a coronary artery or narrowing down of smaller veins, a condition that leads to a heart attack (Surdasky & Hauser, 1990). Moreover, the effects of antibodies on the antigens in blood might result in blood agglutination, which might block passage of blood to the brain, leading to inadequate oxygen levels reaching the brain. The blockage may also be due to stiffness of the arteries leading blood to the brain, a condition that is commonly known as atherosclerosis. The form of supply of blood to the brain is either through anterior or posterior circulation, where the anterior form of circulation controls the coordination of body functions, like speech and motion, while the posterior circulation controls brain coordination and keeps the debris of the brain intact.

This implies that loss of blood supply to the brain that affects posterior circulation could lead to the break-off of the debris resulting in the subsequent death of the brain cells. On the other hand, disturbances of the anterior supply of blood results in inactivity in speech and motor coordination (Bledsoe, 2007). Such might have been the case of the patient in the synopsis. Consequently, a haemorrhage situation, characterised by breakage of the arteries directing blood to and from the brain might lead to stroke. This causative form of haemorrhage might be due to stress, although there has been confusion on the disparities between stress and stroke, where it entirely lies in the paramedic proficiency.

One of the common symptoms of stroke is numbness, the failure of responsiveness of the epithelial cells that control the sense of touch. This implies that for a diagnostic measure to ascertain prevalence of stroke, the victim's sense of touch should be tested. Moreover, stroke can be depicted from inability to coordinate body movements and speech. The patient, in such a case, is not able to stand up, but will be seen lying on the ground due the muscles' weakness. This implies that as much as stroke is a brain disorder, its effects go beyond the brain to affect other body parts. Consequently, the patient will have headaches that are sudden with no known cause (Porter, Bledsoe, & Cherry, 2010).

The ensuing factors behind the causative agents for these two disorders are more psychological than physiological, implying that the factors responsible for brain dysfunction form the major causative agent, while it bears diverse effects with resulting in death in some cases. For instance, stroke may lead to permanent paralysis, while epilepsy might result in total dysfunction of the brain, a condition that is depicted by madness. Overly, these brain disorders culminate in inactivity of the affected person while in consideration brain cells are not replaceable. The fact that the society has to live with these ailments is based on natural synthesis of coexistence with physiological disorders, although there are different forms of management practices that aid patients diagnosed with these ailments in order to reduce the vulnerability to the disorders' effects.

The recurrence of signs in both epilepsy and stroke is so fast that if the first aid is not provided at the time of emergency, then the result will be patient's death. This is the factor underpinning the modern forms of psychoanalysis, which entirely lies on medication, while preventive measures are far better than the curative measures. For instance, aspirin, which is an analgesic drug, helps in relieving headaches and it can be used by patients diagnosed with stroke. The drug, which is a long chain hydrocarbon of the salicylic acid, is both anti-inflammatory and antipyretic. It is anti-inflammatory in the essence that it prevents inflammation of the vessels and vasodilatation of veins alleviating pain. It is also antipyretic in the sense that it controls the heat balance within the body thorough the hypothalamus.

The current stroke therapy recommends the use of the drug in patients with prior cardiovascular risks since it forms an important role in the platelet aggregation. This also helps to control the blood clotting process. Moreover, this drug ensures proper circulation of blood through control of antigens responsible for blood agglutination. This ensures enough blood circulation to the brain, thus minimising chances of lack of oxygen with consequent prevention of stroke. Overly, this drug is in the form of a compressed tablet that easily dissolves in the blood stream and is ingested orally. In addition, aspirin has the effect of high bleeding due to the deletion of the essence of blood clotting.

The other modern management practice for stroke is through administration of the Cophenylcaine Forte, which is a drug that minimises haemorrhage through vasoconstriction of the endoplasmic reticulum due to the presence of phenylephrine. Moreover, the drug contains the lignocaine, which forms the higher percentage that results in impairment of impulses in muscles that are commonly exited, thus alleviating pain. This implies that just like aspirin, this drug has an aesthetic effect. This form of treatment might cause diseases in the coronary artery, requiring precaution from a medical practitioner before administration (American Association of Orthopaedic Surgeons, 2002).

On the other hand, it is recommended for diagnosed epilepsy patients to use the electric current through a mono-phase or a bi-phase, where it helps to stabilise the rhythmic circuits of impulses in the body, especially in the brain. This form of treatment ensures that all the myocardial cells have a balanced electrical state. The bi-phase is the most preferred form of electrical prescription since it reduces chances of damage that the current causes to the myocardial cells since the body receives the electrical excitations in form of rhythmic impulses. This form of treatment has the set back of destruction of the myocardium, causing a burning sensation on skin.

The modern research has come up with effective anticonvulsant medications dependant on the seizure type. For instance, sodium valproate is recommended after infliction of two seizures, although it has the side effects, like depression. Other forms of anticonvulsants like phenytoin are known to increase synthesis of hepatic enzymes responsible for control of neuron transmissions. Consequently, this form of treatment has the side effects of increased weight and consequent death.

Even though there are preventive methods for the ailments, the disease prevalence rates for are still at high rate. Conventionally, it was a common believe that epilepsy was infectious. This is from the fact that most practitioners evaded contact with the patient due to infections. This made it difficult for providence of care to such patients as this anomaly crippled the society whenever they had to bear with the challenge of living with the patient. It was common practice to seclude the epileptic person because of fear of acquisition of the ailment. However, modern management practices have reduced vulnerability of the fear of the unknown. This has culminated to good care provided to the patients, with increased life expectancy among the affected. The research also shows that seclusion of patients with these forms of disorder is subject to mental torture, which increases prevalence rates of the disease within the affected patients.

Moreover, this form of treatment could lead to vulnerability to death due to the psychological tortures. It is for this reason that the patients need good care and management practices apart from medication. For instance, provision of timely and clean food ensures that the patient’s red blood cells are replaced consistently, while the rates of impulse remain at consistent rates. Moreover, guidance and counselling form the basis of the healing process, especially for patients diagnosed with stroke. These are the major forms of cost-effective and non-side effected modes of control of the vulnerability of the diseases.

Contradictorily, even if the management practices are coherent with the general alleviation of the effects of the diseases, it is evident that they portend dire consequences in terms of side effects. This means that in coming up with the management practices, practitioners should seek for methods of dealing with the side effects. For instance, there is need for recommendation of the anticonvulsant in relation to the number of the seizure in the epileptic case. This is essential in determining the probability of exposing the patient to the side effects (Walraven, 2010). Moreover, prescription of the anticonvulsants should replicate in the benefits generated from alleviation of effects than when it is most certain that this medication will cause more harm. This, in real synthesis, emphasises the need for evaluation of side effects against the pain caused by disorder and its consequences. On the other hand, the use of simple medication, like aspirin, which contains salicylic acid that aids in blood agglutination, could mean that the bleeding rate for such patients would increase. This also requires determination of whether the consequences of the side effects outweigh the disease effects in order to seek prescription.

The conventional method of detection of the seizure periods depended on the electroencephalograms, which relied on a manual process of reviewing the congruence of the electrical signals. However, there is a significant research in the synthesis of a computerised program to help review the seizure periods. This depends on a form of coordination between the electrical activity in the brain and a software program, which monitors the impulses and records the deviation from normal. These deviations from normal are what might result in diagnosis of epilepsy. This might also assist in normalisation of the phases of electrical induction as a regulatory measure of the side effects of electrical signals used in healing epilepsy. This implies that the innovations into the future of detection of epilepsy do not only increase the efficiency, but also initiate a consideration of the side effects caused by the curative forms of the disorder especially by use of electricity.

On the other hand, detection of stroke made is through manual programs like speech, where speech experts engage forms of testing of eloquence of the victim to detect the varied language intellect. This easy process culminates in quick findings. Moreover, there are computerised programs that help check impulses in the brain through scanning of the head that determines coherency with the norm. These programs scan and give information about blood flows, where inhibition can be found and treatment measures are deliberated before the situation grows into stroke (Beebe & Myers, 2009). Although it is evident that the some types of scans pose health risks since they use the radiation to create the picture of the brain; this may lead to induction of other forms of side effects, like change in momentum of impulses due to the induced field. This implies that the general purpose for detection is essential in determining the essentiality of the process. Arguably, there is need for protection of the brain from the radiations in order to prevent the radiation side effects; for instance, use of infrared radiation to counter the effects in order to reduce the magnanimity of the detection method.

Conclusively, epilepsy and stroke form the basis of diseases that result from brain dysfunction, where in epilepsy there is change in the electrical activity of the brain. The patient has convulsions resulting from change in seizure periods. Moreover, such patients will show symptoms of fidgeting with hands and daydreaming. On the other hand, stroke results from blockage of entry of blood into the brain. This could be as a result of haemorrhage of the red blood cells or narrowing down of the anterior and posterior arteries. The basic cure for this condition is through the use of aspirin, which has analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic effects. The salicylic acid of acetone helps in the agglutination of blood, although it has the excessive bleeding side effects (Beebe & Myers, 2009). As a result, nowadays preventive measures are preferred, instead of curative measures. For instance, cessation of smoking leads to a risk of stroke. Moreover, guidance and counselling are cost effective modes of ensuring that the victim does not engage in stressful situations that result in high blood pressure. This would help reduce chances of vulnerability. Overly, the issue of deliberation on whether the curative methods, like use of drugs, when curing such diseases as epilepsy and stroke or concentration on the side effects lies in the notion of the efficiency of the mode of treatment against the effects of the disease.

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